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Chemical power source enabling multiply storage and return of electrical energy as a result of reversible conversions of energy. The battery is a set of battery cells in common multi compartment container.

Short form for “Absorbed Glass Mat”. Whole electrolyte is trapped (absorbed) in the glass fiber separator with large porosity placed between plates. This concept is widely used in applications that require safety and high starter current as well as resistance for deep discharge.


  • not resistant to overcharging
  • high temperature sensitive
  • cost much higher than standard batteries

These batteries do not require support for their lifetime if certain conditions of operation are met. Maintenance-free condition, in fact, meet sealed batteries.

We can divide into two categories.

  • – Batteries for cars with basic function of start-stop without function of energy recovery from braking force – batteries with extended service life, higher charging current and more than twice higher number of cycles in comparison to traditional batteries.
  • – Batteries for cars with function of energy recovery from braking force (recuperation) – AGM batteries (Absorbed Glass Mat / technology of electrolyte binding in glass mat).

Hybrid batteries are those where the grid of one of plates is made on the basis of lead-antimony alloy and the other plate is made on the basis of lead-calcium alloy.

Type of electric battery, based on galvanic cells made with lead electrode, lead oxide electrode (IV) (PbO2) and approximately 37% of aqueous solution of sulfuric acid acting as an electrolyte.

Batteries stored in dry state with not formed plates (not processed electrochemically in active materials).

Satisfy needs of applications that require permanent and long-term electricity supply.

Main areas of use of semitraction batteries („Voyager” range) are:

  • electric traction (palletizers, forklifts, etc.)
  • electric vehicles (electric cars, commercial vehicles/ transport vehicles)
  • leisure (recreational vehicles, marine, etc.)
  • lighting (traffic lights, solar energy, photovoltaic)
  • industrial cleaning (machines to floor sweeping, etc.)
  • lifting equipment (scissors and hinging lifts, etc.)

Technical requirements of such categories of users can not be properly met with traditional “starter batteries”, only “Voyager” batteries are able to withstand deep and repetitive discharge cycles and subsequent charging.

Batteries in dry and charged state, ready to use directly after filling with electrolyte.

Batteries designed to power motors of self-propelled electric vehicles.

GEL is a popular name of batteries with gel electrolyte. Sulfuric acid after mixing with silica forms the mass with gel consistency. Gel batteries are characterized by high resistance to electrolyte loss during electrical operation, and low self-discharge. The disadvantage of gel batteries in comparison with AGM are relatively smaller powers during discharge with high currents above C/3. For this reason, gel batteries have no generally high power applications and do not work well in low temperature.

AC generator. This unit is responsible for processing of mechanical energy into electrical energy of alternating current.

Is a measure of capacity of primary cells including electric batteries, it determines the ability to power by this battery the electrical circuit with current with given intensity for a specified period of time. This value is determined by reference to the battery discharge time (usually 20 hours) in standard test (according to standard EN 50342).

Simple device for measuring the density of liquid, which uses buoyant force with which the liquid acts on immersed in it solid; type of densimeter. This allow for the best and easiest way to check the battery and its state of charge.

Cold start current, that is, how much of energy we have available to start the engine. The amount of energy is evaluated by checking battery at -18 ° C. The higher parameter the greater initial power of battery.

Conductive part connected with terminal of cell; on its surface take a place electrochemical reactions.

Liquid o solid ion conductor with significant specific conductivity. In standard batteries 36% sulfuric acid solution.

Charging, that is carried out at constant value of voltage between battery terminals.

Charging, that is carried out at constant current value.

Completion of battery electric power deficiencies.

Contains the set of positive and negative plates lined up sequentially with separators between them. Positive plates are connected in parallel in one unit and negative plates in second unit.

Electrode of battery cell consisting of active material and supporting structure.

Battery plate that in charging process is an anode and in discharge process is a cathode. Active material of positive plate is fine-grained and porous. The main component is lead dioxide (PbO2). After charging plate is light brown.

Battery plate that in charging process is a cathode and in discharge process is an anode. It has porous and fine-grained active material. The main ingredient is a spongy lead (Pb) with addition of “expanders”. Expanders are materials designed to prevent the loss of active material porosity. After charging negative plates have a light gray color.

The capacity is a parameter used to determine amount of electricity delivered by battery to completely discharge at temperature 250C. It is important when batteries are source of power of electrical consumers. Battery capacity can be measured using different units, but the most commonly is used ampere-hour (Ah) and reserve capacity (RC).

Is measured in minutes. It shows discharge time of battery with current 25A to the final voltage 1.75V/cell. It helps determine how long vehicle can work without efficient charging system.

Determined in ampere-hours (Ah) by manufacturer the value of capacity characterizing selected battery.

For starter batteries frequently is given so-called 20 hours’ capacity.

For example: 60 Ah – indicates that battery can be discharged with current equal to 1/20 of capacity (that is 60/20=3A) to voltage 10.5V for 20 hours.

The device used to start combustion engine.

Spontaneous chemical reaction constantly running on battery electrodes causing slow discharge of battery. It is strongly dependent on the ambient temperature and thus batteries subjected to high temperatures require more frequent charging during storage in rest condition in order to ensure their readiness for use (the higher ambient temperature, the faster self-discharge).

Barrier of an insulating material permeable to electrolyte; intended to separate plates with different polarity. It is made of plastic (polyethylene tape in form of envelope).

The state in which the battery has a full power level. The easiest way to check the state of charge is to use an aerometer to measure density of electrolyte.

The situation where the level of electrical energy of battery is low or zero.

It usually works as follow: when driver approaches red light he stops car and turn on “loose” and removes his foot form clutch – engine shuts off. Often on display is showing information “Start-stop”. However, when the light changes to yellow, driver presses clutch pedal, the engine starts automatically and above information goes out. Now is enough to turn on gear and move. If a car is equipped in automatic gearbox, classical or dual-clutch, this procedure can require, for example, only to put your foot on brake, and next take off it.

Consist of alternator (generator) and voltage controller. Task of controller is to keep charging voltage of battery at appropriate level at different climatic and operational conditions.

Is an abbreviation of “Valve Regulated Lead Acid” (lead-acid battery regulated by valve).

It is sealed battery that can operate in any position.

These batteries are made in two technologies: AGM and Gel.

Measuring instrument used to measure voltage. The unit of measurement is 1 volt (V).

See Cold Crank Amps (CCA). Starting capability can be determined by different standards, for example EN; DIN; SAE.

Correlations are given below:


DIN * 1,7= EN


175A (DIN) * 1,7 = 300 A (EN)


 IEC * 1,5 =EN


200A (IEC) * 1,5 = 300 A (EN)


SEA* 1,0=EN


300A (SAE) * 1 = 300 A (EN)


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